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V. V. Vakhidov: biography

Academician Vasit Vakhidov - is an outstanding Uzbek surgeon, founder and first director of the Scientific Surgery Center of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan. Vasit Vakhidov, was born on December 13, 1917 in the family of a peasant in Turkestan city of the South Kazakhstan region, a holy place - the third place after the Mecca and Medina of the pilgrimage place for Muslims of the world. The family of V. Vakhidov was peasant on the lands near the city of Turkestan. Father Abduvakhit Khalmetov was peasant, had 9 children, 2 of whom died at an early age, and seven, and the youngest Vasit, helped his father on the farm. Mother - Khalmetova Khozhar worked around the house. The whole family - it was her concern, the upbringing of children - her care. According to the stories of the sons, the mother was a strict woman, she was able to keep family and seven sons in her hands, and later, when the older sons married, and then their wives too. Her character traits were undoubtedly passed on to her children. Vasit Vakhidovich took from her diligence, love of order in everything, kindness, hidden behind the external severity of character, the ability to bring the case to the end and probably the main thing - to subordinate your character, discarding minor issues - the case. The development of surgery follows the path of narrow specialization. Are allocated directions, problems, problem commissions on various sections of surgery are created. New specialties are defined. Narrow specialization makes it possible to dramatically improve the effectiveness and results of surgical treatment.

Vasit Vakhidovich is seized by a new dream - the construction of a thoracic surgery clinic, according to a special project, where it would be possible to deploy not only specialized departments of thoracic surgery, heart surgery, vascular surgery, but also diagnostic departments and laboratories whose fundamental research will be aimed at solving the problems of surgery.

At this time in Moscow, Kiev, Novosibirsk and other major cities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened research institutes of a surgical profile, especially the rapidly developing surgery in Moscow, where, under the leadership of prominent Soviet Surgeons of academicians Bakulev A.N., Vishnevsky A.A., Petrovsky B.V., Burdenko N.N., Kupriyanov P.A., Meshalkin Ye.N. developed well-known surgical schools.

In the middle 1960s on the basis of the hospital surgical clinic of the First Moscow Medical Institute (now the Moscow Medical Academy) named after I.M. Sechenov was organized by the scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery The First Moscow Order of Lenin Medical Institute ( 1st MOLMI ), which was headed by Boris Petrovsky. By the end of the 1950s, B. V. Petrovsky and his students had experience of about 1500 operations on large vessels and the heart, since 1955 began to perform operations on the open heart. Here, too, continued to engage in traditional directions in surgery of the thyroid gland, mammary gland, the study of hernias of various localization, and actively developed gastric surgery.

March 19, 1963 issued an order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the organization in Moscow city scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the Ministry of Health of the USSR and the appointment of Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences B. V. Petrovsky director of this institute.

Specialized departments are consistently organized at the Institute: the Department of Heart Surgery ( N. N. Malinovsky ), the Laboratory of Artificial Blood Circulation ( G. M. Soloviev ). Here are operated patients with acquired heart defects, pericarditis, heart aneurysm, later with congenital heart defects. The Department of Surgery of the lungs and mediastinum is organized (M. N. Perelman), organ transplantation (V. I. Shumakov), for the first time in the country the department of portal hypertension surgery (M. D. Patsior).

There is an organizational structure of a new type - association: the department of the University - Scientific Research Institute.

A special role in the development of surgery belongs to Boris Vasilievich Petrovsky as the creator of a large Soviet surgical school. Undoubtedly, his school is the most authoritative in practically all important areas of modern surgery. He is undoubtedly the Patriarch of Surgery, a man whom surgeons will be equal for long and long years.

In 1956, B. V. Petrovsky was appointed director of the Hospital Surgical Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of the first Moscow Medical Institute named after N. M. Sechenov, where he created one of the leading cardiac surgery departments in the country.

In the 1960s, he turned to a new problem - reconstructive surgery on valves and septa of the heart, developing the first domestic ball valves of the heart and original valves with seamless fixation. Having perfected the method of artificial circulation of S. S. Briukhonenkov, he began to carry out radical operations with severe congenital and acquired heart defects. He developed and successfully performed the original operation during the relaxation of the diaphragm, and also developed methods for testing patients with a hernia of the esophageal aperture of the diaphragm, created a classification that determined clear indications for surgical treatment of this pathology.

Back in 1946 he performed the first in the USSR one-stage transthoracic resection of the esophagus, and in 1960 published monographs "Surgery of the mediastinum", "Clinic and surgery of thyrotoxic goiter." Proceedings of B. V. Petrovsky those years were desktop for thinking surgeons in all corners of the country. His monographs "Surgical treatment of the open arterial duct" (1963), "Heart aneurysm" (1965), "Heart valve prosthetics" (1968), "Hypothermic perfusion in open heart surgery" (1967) summarize the unique experience of the surgeon. The world's largest experience of plastic surgery on the bronchi and trachea is reflected in the well-known monograph "Resection and Plastic Surgery of the Bronchus" (1966). In 1968, B.V. Petrovsky and E.N. Vantsyan published a monograph "Diverticulum of the esophagus," and then edited by B.V. Petrovsky "Multivolume guide to surgery."

In September 1965 B. V. Petrovsky was appointed to the post of Minister of Health of the USSR and continues to be director of the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery. In 1966 B.V. Petrovsky was elected academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and in 1968 he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. Even a simple list of monographs shows the versatility of the surgical interests of B. V. Petrovsky, his extensive experience of a universal surgeon. These are operations on the heart and large vessels, esophagus, trachea and bronchi, diaphragm and stomach.

Undoubtedly all his monographs were from Vasit Vakhidovich, who closely watched the development of surgery in the world, and especially in Moscow. He was impressed by the polyvalence of Boris Vasilievich as a surgeon, he generally respected only those who, with their surgical skill, proved their superiority daily at the operating table. He knew that B.V. Petrovsky, even as Minister of Health of the USSR, continued his surgical activity, operated and counseled severe patients.

In these years, alongside B.V. Petrovsky his pupils, professors, B.A. Konstantinov, M.I.Perelman, A.Bunyatyan, R.N. Lebedeva, M.D.Paziora, O.B. Milonov, E.N. Vantsyan, AF Chernousov, MD Knyazev, VP Osipov, I.Kh. Rabkin, M.Ya. Khodas, subsequently academicians, corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

V. V. Vahidov knew the work of all pupils of B. V. Petrovsky, daily on his desk were "fresh" magazines "Surgery", "Herald of Surgery", "Thoracic Surgery", "Clinical Surgery". He knew all the works of leading surgeons of both the USSR and foreign countries. With many he met at conferences and symposia in Moscow and other cities of the Soviet Union.

Therefore, when he conceived the construction of a specialized clinic for thoracic surgery, he created himself an image of the most modern clinic that absorbed the advanced surgical ideas of the time. At the same time, in many respects he went further, as B.V. Petrovsky often said when he came to Uzbekistan in the late 70s - the mid-80s. He highly valued Vasit Vakhidovich as a surgeon and scientist, and always paid tribute to his talent as the creator of the first scientific research institution in Uzbekistan. But it will be later, and while Vasit Vahidovich lights up the idea of ​​creating a modern specialized clinic for thoracic surgery.

At this time, in the late 60's, Vasit Vakhidovich "becomes" an architect and a designer. He daily - "how to work" - visited the design institute – “UzGiprogor”, where the project "Clinics of thoracic surgery" is being developed. Later, when this project will be presented for one of the prestigious prizes of Uzbekistan, in the author's team, along with the architects-designers there was also the name of the surgeon - professor V.Vahidov.

The project had many new solutions not yet applied in the design of buildings of medical institutions, the author of many of them was Vasit Vakhidovich himself. This involved, first of all, the operating unit, clinical departments. Much attention was paid to the special design of premises for X-ray radiological equipment. In the basement of the building, an experimental department was designed, with three operating rooms, which, according to projects and equipment, practically did not differ from operating rooms for patients.

The design was carried out by “TashGiprogor”, workshop No. 2, the art team of Artemov V.P., architects O.Ya. Gaazenkopf, M.F. Kondakova, V.M. Rogacheva, engineers V.F. Leunenko, A. A. Tuniyants. The architectural and construction part was carried out under the leadership of D.A. Karimova, the chief architect of the project was O.Ya. Gaazenkopf, the project's main engineer was A.A. Tuniyants.

Designing, and then building, takes away from Vasif Vakhidovich a lot of time and effort, but this does not affect his basic work - surgery was always in the foreground.

Of course, construction lasted several years, but Vasit Vakhidovich already then thinks about who will work in the departments and laboratories of the clinic. Already in the last years of construction, he is trying to ensure that the leading surgeons working under his direction are sent to the major surgical centers of the country and trained there, in addition, he selects graduates, talented youth and also sends them to Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev , Where they undergo a one-year or two-year training. These are surgeons, anaesthesiologists, resuscitators. He does not forget about the training of doctors of functional diagnostics, radiologists, radiologists, biochemists of various profiles.

Thus, to complete the construction, the clinical units could be staffed by doctors who passed the school of the leading surgical centers of the Union. Of course, the main training was carried out at the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (Director B. V. Petrovsky), which by that time became known as the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the Ministry of Health of the USSR (AUSRIC&ES MH USSR).

And here, what Vasil Vakhidovich dreamed about, begins to be implemented and organizationally formed. His multiple trips to Moscow, talks at the Ministry of Health of the USSR, major scientific institutions in Moscow, the support of his leadership of Uzbekistan, the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Health of Uzbekistan, the leadership of the Tashkent Medical Institute do not remain without result.

This time, Professor F.G. Nazarov writes in his article devoted to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Academician B.V. Petrovsky: "It all started with the fact that the head of the Department of Hospital Surgery of the Tashkent State Medical Institute, Professor V.V. Vahidov, having arrived in Moscow, came to the reception to the Minister of Health of the USSR, Academician B. V. Petrovsky. The matter was urgent. Construction of a clinic for thoracic surgery in Tashkent. Then, at the end of the 1960th in Uzbekistan, only Professor Vasit Vakhidov did operations on the lungs and esophagus, heart and trunk vessels. And he had a big goal - the development of specialized types of surgical care in Uzbekistan.

As a result, an order was issued to open the Tashkent branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the USSR Ministry of Health in Uzbekistan. The director All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the USSR was then Academician B. V. Petrovsky.

This turn was not accidental. Boris Vasilievich has long been tormented by the idea of how, with relatively small capital investments, to develop in different regions of the Soviet Union foci of specialized surgical care with highly qualified surgeons, the most modern equipment and, most importantly, united by a common methodical approach to the concept of specialized surgical care.

Together with Academician Boris Vasilyevich Petrovsky, relying on the methodological and advisory assistance of the scientists of the All-Union Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery, Vasit Vakhidovich Vakhidov managed to create a team of scientists and physicians, united by the idea of ​​creating a scientific and medical institution of the most modern level - a branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery in Tashkent. Later they were renamed the All-Union Surgery Center and its Tashkent branch. Since 1992, it is the SCS of the RAMS of the Russian Federation and the SCS of Health of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which maintain creative scientific contacts to this day. "

So, on November 27, 1973 the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 70 was issued, and on December 6, 1973 and the Order of the Minister of Health of the USSR, Academician B.V. Petrovsky No. 970, on the organization of the branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the USSR Ministry of Health in Tashkent. Then came the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek SSR No. 24 of January 18, 1974 and the corresponding Order of the Minister of Health of Uzbekistan No. 38 of March 7, 1974 on the opening of a branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery in Tashkent. As well as the head institute, a branch of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery in Tashkent was merged with the Department of Hospital Surgery of the Medical Faculty of the Tashkent State Medical Institute.

Director of the Department of Hospital Surgery of the Tashkent State Medical Institute Professor Vasit Vakhidov becomes the Director of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery branch.

В 1974 г. началось организационное оформление научных подразделений и отделений клиники ФВНИИКиЭХ. Так, были организационно оформлены отделения хирургии легких, хирургии желудочно-кишечного тракта, лаборатория анестезиологии и реаниматологии, а также рентген-радиологический, клинико-лабораторный и экспериментальный отделы.

Заместителем директора по науке становится ученик В.Вахидова проф. Ризаев М.Н., ученым секретарем, на общественных началах также ученик Васит Вахидовича к.м.н. Ю.И.Калиш. Лабораторией анестезиологии и реаниматологии руководит д.м.н. Г.Н.Гиммельфарб, отделением желудочно-кишечной хирургии — д.м.н. Л.Г.Хачиев, отделением хирургии легких и средостения — проф. Т.М.Кариев, зав. отделением рентгенологии — проф. Н.Т.Адамов, отделением биохимии — д.м.н. Абидов А.А. 3 мая 1974 г. д.м.н. А.Х.Касымов переводится в порядке служебного перевода в филиал ВНИИКиЭХ в г. Ташкенте на должность руководителя экспериментального отдела.

С 1 марта 1976 г. начали функционировать отделения хирургии сердца, функциональной диагностики, патологической анатомии, а также группа хирургии сосудов и группа хирургии печени. 12 марта 1976 г. избирается руководитель отдела патанатомии к.м.н. Б.Ф.Фролов. 28 мая 1976 г. избирается руководителем отделения функциональной диагностики к.м.н. М.Т.Туленов, а на должность старшего научного сотрудника (руководителя группы) хирургии сосудов к.м.н. Б.Л.Гамбарин.

В 1976 г. филиал ВНИИКиЭХ выделяется штатная должность ученого секретаря, на которую после тщательного отбора, 1 ноября назначается канд.мед.наук Л.Д.Нуруллаев. Таким образом, в 1976 г. было в целом завершено формирование всех основных структурных подразделений ФВНИИКиЭХ в г. Ташкенте.

Определено основное научное направление «Разработка и усовершенствование методов хирургического лечения при заболеваниях сердечно-сосудистой системы, органов дыхания и брюшной полости в условиях жаркого климата», оптимизированы планы научных исследований.

Научные работы выполнялись по 6 проблемам союзного значения: «Хирургия органов брюшной полости», «Грудная хирургия», «Хирургическое лечение сердца и сосудов», «Анестезиология и реаниматология», «Рентгенология и радиология», «Биохимия и патохимия обмена веществ».

Следует подчеркнуть, что Васиту Вахидовичу Вахидову в короткие сроки удалось создать дееспособный коллектив единомышленников, большинство из которых являлись его учениками и готовились целенаправленно для работы в специализированных отделениях научно-исследовательского института. Они прошли подготовку в крупных клиниках страны по конкретным направлениям хирургии. Поэтому, с первых дней функционирования, институт начал давать печатную продукцию, организовывать конференции, проводить пионерские научные исследования не только прикладного, но и фундаментального характера.

Интересно отметить, что планы и отчеты научно-исследовательских работ филиала детально и непредвзято рецензировались учеными Головного института, просматривались Э.Н.Ванцян, В.Е.Млынчиком и лично Б.В.Петровским, и только после этого представлялись на рассмотрение Ученому совету ВНИИКиЭХ, где директор филиала делал соответствующий доклад.

Следует подчеркнуть, что коллектив ВНИИКиЭХ оказал большое влияние на становление и развитие своих филиалов, а их в последствии стало 3: Ташкентский, Ереванский и Иркутский.

Дело в том, что академик Б.В.Петровский, будучи конечно, в первую очередь, выдающимся хирургом и крупным организатором здравоохранения, хотел создать сеть специализированных хирургических учреждений, способных на самом высоком методологическом уровне решать вопросы современных хирургических технологий в регионах страны. Развитие хирургии в этих региональных центрах могло быть ускорено в несколько раз.

В последствии, уже после развала Союза, Борис Васильевич в статье в «Медицинской газете» (№ 22 от 15 марта 1996 г.) вспоминает: «В силу недостаточного финансирования на протяжении ряда десятилетий в стране можно было создать лишь несколько крупных медицинских центров, располагающих высококвалифицированными научными кадрами. Эти крупнейшие в нашей стране и в Европе учреждения практически взяли на себя существенную долю особо сложной специализированной помощи. Они стали центрами не только медицинской науки, но и практики в весьма широких диапазонах, генераторами идей. Более того, авторитет отечественной медицины на международной арене в определенной степени поддерживался крупными учеными, возглавляющими эти центры и сформировавшими свои научно-клинические, физиологические и гигиенические школы. Этому во многом способствовали хорошо оснащенные филиала таких центров, созданные в Сибири, Средней Азии и других регионах».

Эта идея Бориса Васильевича Петровского по времени совпала с идеей Васита Вахидовича Вахидова о создании специализированной клиники Грудной хирургии — а фактически о создании специализированного центра, оснащенного современным оборудованием и подготовленными кадрами, владеющими самыми современными хирургическими технологиями. Это совпадение стремлений двух великих хирургов России и Узбекистана было не единственным. Они как-то сразу нашли «общий язык», так как были высокими профессионалами, требовательными руководителями, добрыми людьми. Это сочетание позволило им с большим уважением относится друг к другу на всех этапах более 20-летней совместной работы.

И на протяжении более 20 лет творческая дружба руководителей Головного института и его Ташкентского филиала стала творческой для обоих коллективов.

Это творческое сотрудничество продолжалось и когда директором, теперь уже Научного центра хирургии АМН СССР и его Ташкентского филиала, стал проф. Борис Алексеевич Константинов, которого Васит Вахидович и его ученики кардиохирурги уважали за его блестящие операции на сердце и многому у него учились.

ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ
КАБИНЕТА МИНИСТРОВ РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН

Об увековечивании памяти академика В.Вахидова

Учитывая большой вклад в развитие медицинской науки в Узбекистане и в целях увековечивания памяти одного из основателей узбекской хирургической школы академика Васита Вахидова Кабинет Министров 

ПОСТАНОВЛЯЕТ:

  1. Одобрить предложение Министерства здравоохранения Республики Узбекистан и медицинской общественности о присвоении имени академика В.Вахидова Республиканскому хирургическому научному центру и в дальнейшем данное медицинское учреждение именовать «Республиканский хирургический научный центр имени академика В.Вахидова».

  2. Хокимияту г. Ташкента и Министерству по делам культуры совместно с Министерством Здравоохранения в двухмесячный срок установить на здании Республиканского хирургического научного центра мемориальную доску с портретным изображением академика В.Вахидова.

  3. Хокимияту г. Ташкента рассмотреть вопрос о присвоении имени академика В.Вахидова одной из улиц столицы.

  4. Министерству здравоохранения и Академии наук Республики Узбекистан ежегодно проводить в Республиканском хирургическом научном центре «Вахидовские чтения» — республиканскую научно-практическую конференцию по актуальным проблемам хирургии.

  5. Контроль за исполнением настоящего Постановления возложить на отдел социальных вопросов и культуры Кабинета Министров.

г. Ташкент 6 июля 1995 г.

Председатель Кабинета Министров

И.А.КАРИМОВ